3R Zero Emission Nutrient Recovery & Carbon Bio-refinery Technology

The 3R Technology

The 3R is an advanced and added value recycling and reuse of un-exploited biomass and renewable resources for recovery of: food crop nutrients, biochar and bio-oil by integrated 3R zero emission pyrolysis, catalytic conversion and biotechnological process.

In a world with finite resources there is no infinite development opportunity with sustainability, unless circular economy is not fully implemented. In this context there is no one fit for all processing technology or product solution, but still only the high end solutions are viable and sustainable. The 3R zero emission pyrolysis technology provides market competitive and advanced replication model with BAT/BREF (best available technology reference). Recycling of un-exploited biomass resources, such as animal by-products by the advanced 3R pyrolysis technology, generates new resources and added value products.


The objective of the 3R ZERO EMISSION PYROLYSIS PROCESS, NUTRIENT RECOVERY AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION technology is the added value upgrading and valorisation of animal by-products into safe and high value recovered organic Phosphorous fertilizer and bio-oil by integrated thermal and biotechnological recycling means.

The 3R zero emission carbon processing and nutrient recovery understands the language of the Mother Nature and takes lessons from Her. The term waste is unknown in the Mother Nature as all and any materials must be processed, recycled and reused in a most efficient way, as simply no any creatures can afford to loose any available materials. Same as the 3R zero emission carbon processing means a total recycling and reuse of agricultural  and food industrial by-product materials, "the resources", for conversion into high added value recovered organic fertiliser products.  As a result, the 3R zero emission carbon processing, phosphorus recovery and biochar products open new technical, economical, environmental and climate solution opportunities, specifically targeted for the temperate climatic zone countries applications in the EU, Australia, USA, Canada and Japan.


3R Phosphorus recovery process:

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3R zero emission technology application map:

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The INPUT FEED STREAMS are low value utilized animal by-products; such as high Phosphorous content food grade (category 3) animal bone grist. The OUTPUT PRODUCTS are high quality and safe "ABC" (Animal Bone bioChar) BIO-PHOSPHATE for wide range of agricultural (recovered organic Phosphorus fertilizer with min. 30% P2O5 content) and environmental (adsorbent) applications.

The specific 3R zero emission pyrolysis and nutrient recovery process is based on a horizontally arranged, indirectly heated revolutionary designed rotary kiln, providing reductive thermal decomposition of any biomass up to 850 degree C material core temperature in vacuum. The  zero emission and the highly efficient pyrolysis process add up to comprehensive recycling and the reuse of all material and gas feed streams. The output natural products are tested and validated for open ecological soil applications by the Soil and Plant Protection Authority. Moreover the 3R zero emission pyrolysis process provides high feed flexibility: it's efficient for carbon and resource conversion both for animal by-products and plant based biomass, suitable for temperate climatic zone  applications. Although it's a complex highly advanced and comprehensive performance, the 3R technology does not contain any exotic technical solutions and materials.  

The 3R biomass recycling offers economic viability, generates new resources, produces high market demanded natural products and low cost green energy. The 3R technology also has a great potential for resource conservation, nutrient recovery and GHG emission reduction as well. The 3R pyrolysis process is a patented original solution and industrial design, its development is priority  supported by the EU since 2002. The 3R competitive eco-innovative process and operational prototype at high investment readiness level has been successfully demonstrated (3R Pyrolysis Center) between 2005 and 2019 and scale up to next level 2019/2020 is prepared for medium scale 2.500 t/y and large scale 20,800 t/y full production installations.

The new 3R ZERO EMISSION pyrolysis process and NUTRIENT RECOVERY technology opening new technical, economical, environmental and climate protection opportunities. In this context the 3R provides high value financial and non-financial benefits for all stakeholders who are receiving extraordinary values from the reached high level and tangible business objectives. The 3R key performance indicators are impressive and replicable but still conservative estimated, including key elements such as:

  1. Commercial implementation of breakthrough, evidence-based, specialized and innovative technology, which focus on cheapening the value chain by reducing the cost and time of water and agricultural related large infrastructural investments. The project is based on large scale EU Commission co-financed RTD projects I have coordinated and implemented since 2002 (trusted EU references).
  2. Targeting social and environmental impacts, such as elimination of contamination from food chain and improvement of food safety for less cost, which impacts are well-defined and integrated into the business model and systematically measured.
  3. Exceptional team: The management team is experienced and capable with a proven and meaningful track record and focused strategy, able to create sustainable and viable businesses.
  4. Financial position: The project demonstrating sustainable growth of the business to deliver impact through a promising and realistic business planning, and a significant growth potential at a relatively modest capital investment, with a realistic exit strategy capable of supporting financial and non-financial returns.

Enhanced economy and competitiveness:

  1. Wide feed and technology flexibility, resulting in a board range of end-products.
  2. Co-production of refined carbons, biochar products, refined bio-fuels and natural fertilizers (recovered organic Phosphorous and recycled Nitrogen).
  3. Integrated carbon refinery and nutrient recovery.
  4. Advantageous combinations with biogas and composting programmes.
  5. Low investment and O&M costs with high added value production performance.
  6. High value financial and non-financial benefits for all stakeholders.


The 3R Pyrolysis Process Competitive Advantages and Characteristics

The 3R pyrolysis and nutrient recovery technology is an original solution with highly specialized character. 

Many known pyrolysis options are different alternative modifications for incinerator or gasification options which modifications are generally experienced not to be functional in industrial scale. Since 1980’s several multinational companies set up traditional and modified thermal treatment programs with different gasification (partial oxidation) and reductive processing design, but many such modification are failed.  The 3R recognition has been the core concept, that advanced and efficient pyrolysis designs must be fully and functionally engineered for the reductive thermal processing conditions only and design elements/experiences cannot truly be overtaken from other types of (incineration and gasification) thermal processing units.

Basic aspects of the 3R Zero Emission Pyrolysis Technology:

  1. The 3R is not a modified traditional thermal treatment design.
  2. The 3R is a horizontally arranged indirectly heated rotary kiln with material core temperatures up to <850°C under negative pressure conditions. This original solution is purposely developed for highly efficient indirect heat transfer and maintenance of true reductive thermal processing conditions in vacuum.
  3. The true reductive thermal processing environment provides safer, better, faster, less costly and more environmental friendly than any known solutions and resulting high economical added value output products.
  4. The 3R is a new generation, proven, demonstrated at high Technology and Investment Readiness Level, comprehensive and original solution.
  5. The 3R design does not contain exotic technical solutions and materials.
  6. Low operational and maintenance costs.
  7. Advanced sealing technology ensures the totally closed and totally safe operation of the rotary kiln.
  8. The 3R auxiliary installations are also objective driven developed and designed for the pyrolysis - reductive thermal processing - conditions only.
  9. The 3R is a zero emission solution for primary designed applications, where all and any material streams are recycled and reused (e.g. converted into safe and valuable products), same as done by the nature in millions of years.
  10. High input feed flexibility that provides a broad range of  sustainable and high value output products with high market demanded performance.
  11. Continuous and automated throughput.
  12. The 3R is a high efficient energy conversion process.
  13. The 3R refining the crude pyrolysis oils into refined biofuel.
  14. Modular system.
  15. Meets all strict and comprehensive European, Australian and US industrial and environmental norms and standards beyond the year 2020
  16. Economy: high financial and non-financial benefits with short pay back time.


3R Mission and Strategy

One of the main challenges of the 21'st century is the increased need for sustainability and competitiveness of  agricultural and food production, while safeguarding consumer health, decreasing environmental impacts in agriculture, horticulture and forestry and taking account of climate change. For land based biological resources, special emphasis to be placed on low-input and organic food crop production systems and improved management of resources, with prime concern of optimal recycling and reuse of agro/ food industry by-products and un-exploited biomass resource streams.

Phosphorus is a critical raw material (EU COM (2017) 490) and strategic key element of the food crop and animal production in agriculture. Phosphorus cannot be substituted. There are no any other materials with high P2O5 content (>30%) known than apatite minerals from phosphate rocks (but this is contaminated with Cadmium and Uranium) or bone char (that is a natural and pure apatite substance). The low toxic elemenent content phosphate rock resources are already exhausted on global level. In 2008 significant 700% price increase happened in the phosphate sector and by 2020 and beyond additional extreme high price increase to be expected. The phosphate is recognized by the EU as critical raw material (EU COM (2017) 490). The EU is >95% is importing the mineral phosphate, most MS 100%, mineral phosphate containing Cadmium and Uranium toxic elements. The new EU Fertilizers Regulation revision law harmonization (2018) provides strict safety criteria for fertilizers (including very low Cadmium content), for which most traditional mineral fertilizers cannot meet under market competitive conditions.

The 3R mission is to provide an advanced, economical and environmentally safe ZERO EMISSION PYROLYSIS PROCESS, PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY and RESOURCE CONSERVATION technology solution, - with  a unique new perspectives for valorised reuse and added value recycling of un-exploited biomass resources into such products like recovered Phosphorous (Animal Bone Char Bio-Phosphate) and Nitrogen natural fertilizers, highly demanded for green energy, agricultural and carbon negative environmental applications.

The new generation 3R pyrolysis technology solution is a high added value valorization of the un-exploited biomass resources with wide feed flexibility providing a board range of end-products with the co-production of refined carbons (biochar) and recovered organic Phosphorus fertiliser (Animal Bone Char Bio-Phosphate), bio-fuels and recycled liquid Nitrogen fertilizers, all with enhanced overall economy and competitiveness.

The 3R technology is dedicated to provide a cost efficient carbon refining and nutrient recovery solution which is environmentally sustainable for a long term producing added value products  for agriculture,  green energy and environmental product industries, while implementing the waste prevention, environmental protection, resource preservation and sustainable economical growth support concepts. The 3R Zero Emission Carbon Refinery mission meets basic global challenges by providing efficient solution for utilization of un-exploited biomass resources.

3R Zero Emission Pyrolysis and Nutrient Recovery Process Industrial Development History

The 3R-ZERO EMISSION PYROLYSIS PROCESS and NUTRIENT RECOVERY innovation started in the late 80's and the RTD programmes accelerated after 2002, when the European Union started to support the development programme (EU-FP5 Multi Fuel, EU-FP6 Protector, CIP-ECOINNOVATION, EU-FP7 REFERTIL) on a priority large scale basis. For more information please visit our 3R PROJECT References.

The 3R pyrolysis and nutrient recovery technology is aiming to enhance the total reuse of un-exploited biomass resources from agriculture and food industry, in order to economically reduce the use of mineral Nitrogen and Phosphorous fertilizers in safe food crop production, while minimiznig the negative impact of agriculture on the environment and on climate change.

After years of RTD, advanced engineering, validation and field demonstration works, the 3R  pyrolysis and nutrient recovery technology is ready to be commercially licensed and to implement full scale industrial and production systems from the economical medium scale 2,500/year throughput capacity towards large scale 20,800/year throughput capacity.

CURRENT STATUS: The status of the 3R industrial pyrolysis and nutrient recovery technology is post development, industrially proven, Authority permitted and field demonstrated. It clearly reached proven full scale industrial phase, with a comprehensive fully scale up engineered design.


For more information aout our related EU Projects please visit the 3R PROJECT References.

3R Management

Mr. Edward Someus (inventor, owner)

Swedish environmental engineer with core competence of ecological recycling and added value reuse of unexploited biomass by specific and advanced high tech 3R pyrolysis (carbon refinery) and biotech means. Born 1951; education: University of Lund in Sweden (1972 - 1978), graduated in 1978, M.Sc., Natural and Environmental Sciences.

Key competence and specialized expertise: comprehensive zero emission pyrolysis technology (3R), its refined and natural products, most importantly bio- recovered Phosphorus and nutrients. The innovative 3R providing high added value recycling and economical reuse of agricultural and food industrial by-products used by the organic/low input farming and adsorbent sectors. The specialized expertise is covering fields from applied science through RTD and industrial engineering into full industrial applications and market take up management. The high level of scientific knowledge is combined with industrial engineering and economical field application management, including process scale up, regulation follow up and EU-MS-REACH Authority permitting of pyrolysis technology and products.


Edward Someus is a Swedish environmental engineer from the University of Lund, with +30 years core competence and specialization on biochar science and technology, industrial manufacturing, product formulations and agricultural field applications under market competitive conditions. Specific zero emission pyrolysis technology developed (“3R” Recycle-Reduce-Reuse technology) for carbon refinery processing and material/nutrient added-value recovery, most importantly Phosphorus, such as extraction of high P2O5 concentrated innovative ABC Animal Bone bioChar organic fertilizer from rendering industrial animal bone by-products.

The work field is covering area from the matured phase of applied research into full industrialization of carbon refinery systems to convert nutrient recovery science into legalized and economical industrial practice. The economical biochar processing capacities ranging usually from the medium industrial 2,500 t/y to large industrial scale 20,800 t/y throughput capacities.

These nutrient recovery development works are based on the EU regulations and Member State legal permits for biochar processing, product safety, accredited analytics and applications for the interest and benefits of SME farmers. Since 2002 Edward Someus is a nutrient recovery S&T coordinator and key technology designer for large scale EU research projects, involving ten EU countries, including FP7 REFERTIL project 2011-2016 for EU28 standardization and full law harmonization development of the biochar products.

Edward Someus is a member of the EIP-AGRI (run by the European Commission DG Agriculture and Rural Development) Nutrient Recycling Focus Group.

Edward Someus has been selected as a Member of the EU DG Grow-JRC STRUBIAS (struvite-biochar-ash) Expert Group, a sub-class of the Commission Working Group on fertilisers.



TERRA senior management team having capabilities and highly experienced to develop business opportunity in the agricultural raw material recovery sector.

PDF icon Edward Someus EuroPass CV762.01 KB

3R Pyrolysis - BIO-PHOSPHATE - Nutrient Recovery - Agro-Biotech Field Demo Center

“3R Pyrolysis” Center for Phosphorus recovery,  biomass valorization, renewable energy, and innovative agricultural biotechnology demo - training

Operational field: from advanced applied science to economical scale up and industrialization of pyrolysis, solid state fermentation, agrobiotech and synfuel technologies



The 3R pyrolysis center combines  science, industrial engineering and practice. TERRA HUMANA is the owner of the fully permitted industrial site in West Hungary (Biofarm Agri Research Station (Google Map: https://goo.gl/maps/wHxmZ7J1ChJ2 ), which is dedicated to innovative and advanced agricultural, environmental and industrial technology field demonstrations under different EU programmes. The specific works include pyrolysis technology (carbonization, torrefaction) and biomass added value utilization processes, with commercial objective driven production of bone charcoal, biochar and innovative natural Phosphorous / Nitrogen fertilizers.

The field demonstration of the advanced 3R design and innovative technology is bridge over practical science with clear industrial application orientation, engineered scale up design development and economical commercialization.

The 3R site installation and RTD operations are Authority permitted, including official Authority permit for specific biochar production and application for open ecological soil environment use.

3R & Technology


Terra Humana Ltd. / COMPANY PROFILE (PDF) / 3R Mission

Terra Humana Ltd. is a technology intensive company playing a leading role in zero emission pyrolysis technology engineering, phosphorus recovery and biochar industrial production. TERRA senior management team having capabilities and highly experienced to develop business opportunity in the agricultural raw material recovery sector.


  • ABC (Animal Bone Char) BIO-PHOSPHATE - recovered and high nutrient dense organic Phosphorus fertiliser
  • Refined Bio-Oil for renewable clean energy
  • Adsorbent products for water treatment

Owner, Key Technology Designer:  Edward Someus EuroPass (CV)

Carbon refinery, pyrolysis, Phosphorus recovery; bio-oil & synthetic fuel; biochar, Animal Bone Char & carbon biotech formulation; NPK plant nutrient recovery and recycling; carbonization processing of food grade animal biomass by-products (bone meal cat. 3, MBM & PAP cat. 3-2); and low moisture content manure from herbivorous animals and agro/forest plant biomass residuals

Contact information

Terra Humana Ltd.

(Edward Someus)





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