Pyrolysis is Reductive Thermal Processing.
The 3R Recycle-Reuse-Reduce is a zero emission low temperature carbonization (pyrolysis) – reductive thermal decomposition processing. The 3R slow pyrolysis process is based on a horizontally arranged indirectly heated rotary kiln designed for reductive thermal decomposition of plant and/or animal origin biomasses between 450 °C (842 °F) - 850 °C (1562 °F) material core temperature ranges in vacuum (absence of oxygen).
The system works with zero emission, comprehensive recycling and reuse of all process materials and gases. The target of the 3R Zero Emission Pyrolysis Process is the added value upgrading/valorisation of agro/food industrial organic by-products into safe and high value soil amendment and nutrition products.
Pyrolysis of biomass substances produces solid residue rich in carbon content “biochar” and separated volatile crude pyrolysis gas which may be condensed into liquid crude oil and non condensable gases. After catalytic conversion of crude pyrolysis liquid and/or gas products, synthetic fuel and transport quality bio-oil produced. The 3R pyrolysis is safer, better, faster, more economical and environmental friendly than any other solutions.
The 3R system is also integrated into the novel agro biotechnological – solid state fermentation and formulation, and syngas/synthetic biofuel processing units.
The 3R is an engineered full scale industrial design, that development has been completed by the end of 2015.
The “3R” Recycle–Reduce-Reuse Zero Emission Carbon Refinery and Phosphorus Recovery processing is a mimic of the Nature that emits no any waste products that pollutes the environment or disrupts the climate, in which process all and any materials and energy are recycled and reused into useful products.
The Nature cannot afford to waste materials and/or waste of energy, while it always finds the most efficient material and energy recycling, recovery and reuse conversion pattern during the ever ongoing bio-geo-chemical cycles. In order to mimic the Nature, the 3R bio-geo-chemical process - where it is possible, necessary and/or advantageous - coherently integrates the carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen related cycles, such as:
- Carbon Recycling and Refining, thermal processing by carbonization for recycling of carbon for wide range of natural and carbon negative product applications.
- Carbon Bio-formulation, biotech formulation of carbon for efficient bio and plant availability of NPK nutrient uptake process support.
- Phosphorus recovery from animal by products, including NPK-C and micronutrient formulations.
- Carbon Bio-energy, chemical processing of pyrolysis gases and oils for liquid fuel bio-energy production.
The feed materials of the 3R do not compete with human food, animal feed and plant nutrient supply. The inputs are always low grade non food by-products or waste streams generated by human activities, and not from primer or secondary agricultural land use that are related to food production. The high feed flexibility provides high added value and wide range of different types of output products together with wide range of market demanded application possibilities targeted in the rapidly developing natural soil fertilization agro market, green energy and environmental adsorbent business.
Biochar is plant or animal biomass origin stabile carbon based carboniferous material for Authority permitted open ecological soil enhancement use and eco-safe carbon negative applications in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The high mineral content animal bone based biochar (ABC Animal Bone bioChar) is organic P/Ca fertilizer at 200-1000 kg/ha dose rate and growing media in the horticultural sector. The high carbon content plant based biochar is soil improver usually at approx. 5000-20000 kg/ha dose rate for water/nutrient retention and carbon sequestration applications, but providing no fertilizer effects with economical importance. For both biochar types there is a long list of additional beneficial effects.
Legal notice: Biochar soil applications are irreversible; therefore commercial biochar key players such as industrial producers, market distributors for placing product on the market and users having high legal, economical and social responsibilities with joint and several liability for their activities. In this context, beyond the mandatory EU/MS permits, operational and use licenses the preventive and precautionary principle (connected to international, EU and Member State legislations) and its instruments are to be fully implemented as well.
ABC Animal Bone bioChar: this type of biochar is made of food grade animal bones and characterized by as high as 92% mineral carbon and 8% carbon content only. This is a full value recovered organic Phosphorus fertilizer with high calcium and content. ABC is horticultural organic recovered fertilizer and growing media used in as low as 200-1000 kg/ha doses, in average 300 kg/ha. Another specific application is the adsorbent use. ABC contains high amount of recovered Phosphorus (P2O5 >30%) and Ca (27%) available for plants, which allows efficient, environmentally safe and natural renewable phosphorus supply.